Palm kernel shells are a side product derived from the production of palm kernel oil and palm oil from the palm tree seeds.
The palm kernel shell is thick and wood-like and hence a perfect fuel for wood co-generation plants, thermal power stations, biomass power stations and industrial plants. Regions of origin are Africa and Asia.
Both the quantity of mineral substance (ash) in fuel and its chemical composition are important for the energy sector. In comparison to ash from coal, chemical composition of ash from biomass has significantly higher impact on the formation of low-melt fractions of sediments on the surfaces of power boiler super-heaters. It is caused by high content of potassium compounds (from 18.17% to 38.11% by mass) and calcium compounds (6.04% to 48.74% by mass) in the Polish agro biomass . Ash from PKS samples is characterized by lower content of those elements. Silicon compounds are its main components. They reduce the probability of slagging and impurities appearance on the surfaces of power unit heat exchanges Chemical composition of ash from Palm Kernel Shells