The cashew nut is a popular snack, and its rich flavor means that it is often eaten on its own, lightly salted or sugared. In addition to this, cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL), a by-product of processing cashew, is mostly composed of anacardic acids. .
Palm kernel shell at site.
Moisture content in kernel shells is low compared to other biomass residues with different sources suggesting values between 11% and 13%. Palm kernel shells contain residues of Palm Oil, which accounts for its slightly higher heating value than average lignocellulosic biomass. Compared to other residues from the industry,
Biodiesel was produced from sludge palm oil (SPO) using tolune-4-sulfonic monohydrate acid (PTSA) as an acid catalyst in different dosages in the presence of methanol to convert free fatty acid (FFA) to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), followed by a transesterification process using an alkaline catalyst .
Cashew nut tree at site
The crop season in West Africa is from March to June. There is not a general standard for cashew nuts but some parameters can establish the quality of the cashew and the appreciation on the market. .
Cocoa Beans .
bean (also cacao bean, often simply cocoa andcacao) is the dried and
fully fermented fatty seed of Theobroma cacao, from which cocoa solids
and cocoa butter are extracted. A cocoa pod (fruit) has a rough leathery
rind about 3 cm thick (this varies with the origin and variety of pod).
It is filled with sweet, enclosing 30 to 50 large seeds that are fairly soft and
pale pink or lavender in color. Seeds usually are white, becoming violet
or reddish brown during the drying process. The exception is rare
varieties of white cacao, in which the seeds remain white. Historically,
white cacao was cultivated by the Rama people of Nicaragua. n the year 2005 alone, export revenue from the
sale of cocoa amounted to US$136.7 million. Cote
d'lvoire and Ghana all in West Africa, account for about 70% of the
world's cocoa production. .
Uses: Cocoa seeds are the source of commercial cocoa (cocoa beans), the four intermediate cocoa products (cocoa liquor, cocoa butter, cocoa cake and cocoa powder) and chocolate. Although the market for chocolate is the largest consumer of cocoa in terms of bean equivalent, intermediate products such as cocoa powder and cocoa butter are used in several areas..